Immunology and Microbiology
First Thesis Advisor
Kenneth L. Rock
Genes, MHC Class I, Histocompatibility Antigens Class I, Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier Proteins, Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes
CD8 T cells recognize complexes of MHC class I and peptide on the surface of target cells. MHC class I antigen presentation is a long pathway, in which proteins are degraded by proteasomes to generating oligopeptides, which may be further trimmed by aminopeptidases in the cytosol. Peptides are transported into the ER, where they may be further trimmed by ER lumenal aminopeptidases and bind to newly-synthesized MHC class I complexes. Proteins degraded by the proteasome are generally tagged with ubiquitin by a combination of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes and ubiquitin ligases. UBC9 is one ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, which does not conjugate ubiquitin, but instead conjugates small ubiquitin-like molecules (SUMO) to target protein. UBC9 has been found to regulate the functions of many proteins in vivo, most importantly by modifying nuclear transportation and function. Curing [During] my thesis work, I studied the function of UBC9 in MHC class I antigen presentation.
UBC9 over-expression in COS cells co-expressing ovalbumin markedly increased presentation SIINFEKL (the immunodominant epitope from ovalbumin in the context of H-2Kb), and UBC9 overexpression increased cell surface H-2Kbin general, suggesting that Ubc9 increased MHC class I antigen presentation by increasing peptide supply.
UBC9 did not increase synthesis or degradation of ovalbumin. In transient transfection experiments, Ubc9 increased presentation of SIINFEKL precursors that did, and that did not, depend on proteasomes for processing, as well as SIINFEKL precursors targeted to the ER, bypassing cytosolic processing altogether. However, a C-terminal extended precursor of SIINFEKL, which requires only proteasomal processing before presentation, was the most markedly affected by UBC9 overexpression. This suggested that UBC9 was affecting the pattern of cleavages made by proteasomes in ways that enhance the generation of the C-terminus of SIINFEKL. Because presentation of SIINFEKL itself (which requires no further proteolytic processing) was also enhanced, UBC9 must also affect steps in the class I pathway that occur after the generation of the mature epitopes. UBC9 did not affect the rate of peptide degradation in cytosolic extracts or in intact cells.
These findings suggested that UBC9 might have multiple effects on the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway. Immunofluorescent microscopy demonstrated that UBC9 increased the expression of the beta subunits of immunoproteasomes (LMP2, LMP7, and MECL1) as well as of TAP1 and tapasin. In contrast, UBC9 expression did not increase levels of calnexin, calreticulin, ERp57, or Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI). Similarly, levels of leucine aminopeptidase were not increased in UBC9-transfected cells. Therefore, UBC9 overexpression increases the levels of some but not all components of the class I pathway.
UBC9 overexpression increased protein levels of MECL1, LMP2 or LMP7 that were under the control of viral promoters, and levels of MECL1 mRNA were similar in control vector and UBC9 transfected cells. Therefore, UBC9 did not increase the level of expression of these subunits through increased transcription. Pulse-chase experiments showed that UBC9 overexpression reduced the degradation of MECL1. Therefore, UBC9 increases the levels of at least some of these components of the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway by increasing their stability.
To know the biological significance of UBC9 in MHC class I antigen presentation, I used small interfering RNA (siRNA) to knock down UBC9. Though UBC9 can be successfully knocked down by siRNA, the UBC9-negative cells became very sick, and were not suitable for the study of MHC class I antigen presentation.
There are three forms of SUMO molecules in mammalian cells: SUMO-1, SUMO-2 and SUMO-3. My study suggested that SUMO-2 may be involved in UBC9's regulation of MHC class I antigen presentation, since mutant SUMO-2 blocked UBC9's ability to increase H-2Kb-SIINFEKL levels on the cell surface after the cells were loaded with ovalbumin.
To further study the function of UBC9, I mutated the active amino acid Cys 93 of UBC9 to Ser (UBC9OH). Unexpectedly, this mutant form (UBC9OH) has very similar effects as wild-type UBC9, increasing Kb-SIINFEKL levels at the cells surface. This suggested that UBC9 protein regulates MHC class I antigen presentation pathway proteins by direct or indirect protein interaction, rather than (or as well as) by SUMO conjugation. Taking account of SUMO-2 results, I propose that wild-type UBC9 (either transfected or endogenous) conjugates SUMO-2 to its substrates, and then UBC9 (wild-type or mutant) interacts with its sumoylated targets, thus affecting protein functions.
I also studied heat shock protein Hsp27, which is known to be a substrate for UBC9 in vivo. Hsp27 is expressed in a variety of tissues in the absence of stress, and may regulate actin dynamics.
Hsp27 overexpression decreased generation of H-2Kb-SIINFEKL complexes from SIINFEKL precursors that did, and did not, require proteasomes for processing, or that were targeted to the ER. Hsp27 over-expression did not affect protein synthesis, and globally decreased cell surface H2-Kb and H2-Dblevels, but did not affect HLA-A0302 level. Hsp27 overexpression inhibits the presentation of ER-localized SIINFEKL. Taken together, my data suggested that HSP27 may inhibit MHC class I antigen presentation by affecting MHC class I molecules itself rather than peptide supply.
After Hsp27 was eliminated with siRNA, the effects were very similar to those seen with Hsp27 overexpression. Levels of H-2Kb-SIINFEKL decreased, and overall cell surface H-2Kb and H-2Db levels decreased. It is possible that when Hsp27 is over-expressed, it acts as a dominant negative form, conferring a similar phenotype to Hsp27 knockdown. These observations suggest that Hsp27 plays an important role in MHC class I antigen presentation.
Shen, Y. MHC Class I Antigen Presentation is Regulated by the SUMO-Conjugating Enzyme UBC9: a Dissertation. (2003). University of Massachusetts Medical School. GSBS Dissertations and Theses. Paper 111. DOI: 10.13028/vt30-sg28. https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/gsbs_diss/111
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