GSBS Dissertations and Theses

ORCID ID

0000-0003-3966-5328

Publication Date

2020-06-12

Document Type

Master's Thesis

Academic Program

Master of Science in Clinical Investigation

Department

Radiology; Neuro-Interventional Radiology

First Thesis Advisor

Max Rosen, MD, MPH

Keywords

Stroke, Acute Ischemic Stroke, Large Vessel Occlusion, Endovascular, Thrombectomy, Mortality, Outcomes

Abstract

Background: Mechanical thrombectomy is the gold standard for treating patients with certain acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to large vessel occlusion (LVO). However, even with major advancements and increasing procedural volumes, acute endovascular therapy remains a high-risk procedure with a considerable 90-day mortality rate, affected by a variety of factors.

Purpose: To investigate various clinical and procedural factors associated with 90-day mortality in patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for emergent treatment of AIS and determine which of these factors made unique contributions to post-thrombectomy prognosis.

Methods: We examined a prospective registry of 323 patients treated with endovascular thrombectomy for AIS between 2016 and 2019 at a high-volume comprehensive stroke center in central Massachusetts. We developed two multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for the contributions of baseline characteristics and recanalization parameters, to identify potential predictors of mortality at 90 days.

Results: Among 323 AIS patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy, the overall rate of successful recanalization was 86% and the overall post-procedure mortality rate was 29% by 90 days. After univariate analysis, a baseline multivariable model comprised of: history of stroke (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09 – 0.68), pre-stroke modified Rankin Scale (mRS 2: OR 3.75, 95% CI), severe admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS 21–42: OR 12.36, 95% CI 1.48 – 103.27), internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.18 – 6.55), and posterior circulation occlusion (OR 2.69, 95% CI 1.06 – 6.83) was prognostic of 90-day mortality. A second multivariable model also found the procedural factors of: clot obtained after each pass (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.24 – 1.00), successful recanalization (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06 – 0.8) and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH; OR 17.89, 95% CI 5.22 – 61.29) to be identifiable predictors of post-thrombectomy mortality.

Conclusion: Death within 90 days after thrombectomy was increased among patients with higher pre-stroke disability, higher stroke severity on admission, ICA or posterior occlusion, and those with sICH complication. A history of stroke, clot extraction after each device pass, and successful recanalization are associated with decreased 90-day mortality. These identifiable contributors may inform patient selection, prognosis evolution, and shared decision-making regarding emergent thrombectomy for treatment of AIS.

DOI

10.13028/q3tw-n078

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