Additive inhibition of dendritic cell allostimulatory capacity by alcohol and hepatitis C is not restored by DC maturation and involves abnormal IL-10 and IL-2 induction

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Rheumatology Division; Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology

Publication Date


Document Type



Adult; Alcohol Drinking; Cell Differentiation; Dendritic Cells; Ethanol; Female; Hepatitis C; Humans; Immunosuppression; Interleukin-10; Interleukin-2; Isoantigens; Male; Middle Aged; Myeloid Cells; Statistics, Nonparametric; T-Lymphocytes


Gastroenterology | Hepatology | Rheumatology


BACKGROUND: Excessive alcohol use results in impaired immunity, and it is associated with increased incidence and progression of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Here we investigated the effects of HCV infection and alcohol on myeloid dendritic cells (DC) that are critical in antiviral immunity.

METHODS: Immature and mature DCs were generated from monocytes of chronic HCV infected patients (HCV-DC) and controls (N-DC) with IL-4 plus granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in the presence or absence of alcohol (25 mM). DC allostimulatory capacity was tested in mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) and cytokine production by ELISA.

RESULTS: Allostimulatory capacity of HCV-DCs was reduced compared to N-DCs and it was further inhibited by alcohol treatment (p < 0.01). MLR was also decreased with alcohol-treated N-DCs. DC phenotypic markers and apoptosis were comparable between HCV-DCs and N-DCs irrespective of alcohol treatment. However, HCV-DCs and alcohol-treated N-DCs exhibited elevated IL-10 and reduced IL-12 production. Reduced MLR with HCV-DCs and its further inhibition by alcohol coexisted with decreasing IL-2 levels (p < 0.017). DC maturation partially improved but failed to fully restore the reduced allostimulatory function of either alcohol-treated or alcohol-naive HCV-DCs (p < 0.018).

CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and HCV independently and together inhibit DC allostimulatory capacity, increase IL-10, reduce IL-12 and IL-2 production that cannot be normalized by DC maturation. HCV and alcohol interact to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses via dendritic cells.

DOI of Published Version



Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2003 Jun;27(6):1023-31. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research

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