Toll-like receptors in liver disease
Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology
Medical Subject Headings
Animals; Cytokines; Fatty Liver; Humans; Immunity, Innate; Liver Diseases; Liver Diseases, Alcoholic; Signal Transduction; Toll-Like Receptors
Digestive System Diseases | Gastroenterology | Hepatology | Immunopathology
Activation of inflammatory signaling pathways is of central importance in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Recent studies demonstrated that Toll-like receptors, the sensors of microbial and endogenous danger signals, are expressed and activated in innate immune cells as well as in parenchymal cells in the liver and thereby contribute to ALD and NASH. In this review, we emphasize the importance of gut-derived endotoxin and its recognition by TLR4 in the liver. The significance of TLR-induced intracellular signaling pathways and cytokine production as well as the contribution of individual cell types to the inflammation is evaluated. The contribution of TLR signaling to the induction of liver fibrosis and to the progression of liver pathology mediated by viral pathogens is reviewed in the context of ALD and NASH.
Rights and Permissions
Citation: Adv Clin Chem. 2013;59:155-201. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-405211-6.00006-1
Petrasek, Jan; Csak, Timea; and Szabo, Gyongyi, "Toll-like receptors in liver disease" (2013). Gastroenterology Publications and Presentations. 141.