Tobacco chippers report diminished autonomy over smoking

UMMS Affiliation

Family Medicine and Community Health



Document Type



Adolescent; Adult; Behavior, Addictive; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Motivation; *Personal Autonomy; Smoking; Smoking Cessation; Social Behavior; Tobacco Use Disorder


Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Preventive Medicine | Psychiatry and Psychology | Psychology | Substance Abuse and Addiction


We assessed tobacco chippers (n=35) for symptoms of diminished autonomy over tobacco use, which begins when symptoms present a barrier to smoking cessation. Although they reported each of the symptoms measured by the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist, chippers' level of autonomy was generally higher than that of regular smokers and their symptom intensity was low. The rank order of symptom prevalence in chippers and regular smokers was similar, and 40% of chippers had failed at least one cessation attempt. Only 23% of chippers reported full autonomy over their smoking. Although chippers may not warrant a dependence diagnosis, they may benefit from help with cessation. Autonomy over smoking may be a more useful basis than cigarette consumption rates for classifying smokers.

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Citation: Addict Behav. 2006 Apr;31(4):717-21. Link to article on publisher's site. Epub 2005 Jun 27.

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed


Nicotine, Tobacco, Smoking, Dependence