The relationship between level of cigarette consumption and latency to the onset of retrospectively reported withdrawal symptoms
Department of Family Medicine and Community Health
Adolescent; Adult; Child; Female; Health Surveys; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Questionnaires; Recurrence; Reproducibility of Results; Smoking; Smoking Cessation; Substance Withdrawal Syndrome; Time Factors; Tobacco Use Disorder; United States
Community Health | Preventive Medicine
RATIONALE: Subthreshold smokers (who smoke < or =5 cigarettes/day) experience withdrawal symptoms, yet they smoke less than is required to maintain serum nicotine levels.
OBJECTIVES: For study 1, our aim was to determine (1) if adult subthreshold smokers report withdrawal symptoms; (2) how they rate symptom severity; (3) the length of their latency to withdrawal symptoms; (4) and the relationship between level of cigarette consumption and latency to withdrawal. The aim of study 2 was to attempt to replicate the results of study 1 in a nationally representative sample and to compare subthreshold and threshold (> or =6 cigarettes/day) smokers.
METHODS: Study 1 was conducted through telephone interviews. Study 2 was conducted through secondary analysis of data from the National Youth Tobacco Survey (self-administered in schools).
RESULTS: In study 1, all subjects experienced withdrawal symptoms. The mean number of symptoms was 4.3; mean intensity of each symptom was >6 (1-10 scale). A quarter of the subjects could go for > or =2 days before experiencing withdrawal. More frequent smokers had a shorter latency to withdrawal (r=-0.43, p
CONCLUSIONS: Although subthreshold smokers experience significant withdrawal symptoms, they can smoke infrequently because symptoms may not appear for one to several days. Consistent with the sensitization-homeostasis theory, low doses of nicotine can suppress withdrawal symptoms over long periods.
DOI of Published Version
Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2006 Oct;188(3):335-42. Epub 2006 Sep 5. Link to article on publisher's site
Ursprung, W. W. Sanouri A.; Wellman, Robert J.; and DiFranza, Joseph R., "The relationship between level of cigarette consumption and latency to the onset of retrospectively reported withdrawal symptoms" (2006). Family Medicine and Community Health Publications and Presentations. 159.