A systematic review of the International Classification of Diseases criteria for the diagnosis of tobacco dependence

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Family Medicine and Community Health

Publication Date


Document Type



Tobacco Use Disorder; International Classification of Diseases; Nicotine; Smoking Cessation; Smoking


Community Health | Preventive Medicine


Our objective was to examine the evidence concerning the validity and reliability of the International Classification of Diseases criteria for tobacco dependence (ICD-TD). A literature search was conducted of 16 databases using the search terms addiction, cigarettes, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Disease, DSM, dependence, International Classification of Diseases, ICD, nicotine, smoking and tobacco. The search produced 37 relevant articles. We found no data supporting the predictive validity of the criteria, and none supporting the characterization of dependence as having a three-symptom threshold. We found no data concerning the validity or reliability of the official instrument, which inappropriately excludes nondaily smokers from being evaluated for dependence. We found no evidence that the ICD-TD diagnosis had been used for clinical decision making, in a smoking cessation study, or for longitudinal epidemiological surveillance. We contrast the utility of the ICD-TD criteria to an approach of diagnosing tobacco addiction on the basis of a single criterion of a compulsion to use tobacco.

DOI of Published Version



Addict Behav. 2010 Sep;35(9):805-10. Epub 2010 May 21. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Addictive behaviors

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID