University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications


Changes in Depression Subtypes Among Men in STAR*D: A Latent Transition Analysis

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Psychiatry; Department of Quantitative Health Sciences

Publication Date


Document Type



Mental Disorders | Psychiatry


The burden of depression in men is high. Current diagnostic criteria may not fully capture men's experience with depression. Descriptions of the heterogeneity in depression among men are lacking. The purpose of the study was to characterize latent subtypes of major depression and changes in these subtypes among men receiving citalopram in Level 1 of the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) trial. Latent transition analysis was applied to data from 387 men who completed baseline and Week 12 study visits in Level 1 of STAR*D. Items from the self-report version of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology were used as indicators of latent depression subtypes. Four statuses were identified at baseline and Week 12. Baseline statuses were Mild (10% of men), Moderate (53%), Severe with Psychomotor Slowing (20%), and Severe with Psychomotor Agitation (17%). At Week 12, the statuses were Symptom Resolution (41%), Mild (36%), Moderate (18%), and Severe with Psychomotor Slowing (5%). Men in the Mild status were most likely to transition to Symptom Resolution (probability = 69%). Men in the Severe with Agitation status were least likely to transition to Symptom Resolution (probability = 0%). This work highlights the need to not focus solely on summary rating scores but to also consider patterns of symptoms when treating depression.


STAR*D, depression subtypes, latent transition analysis, major depressive disorder

DOI of Published Version



Am J Mens Health. 2015 Oct 5. pii: 1557988315607297. Link to article on publisher's site

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

Journal/Book/Conference Title

American journal of men's health

PubMed ID