University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications


Confirmatory factor analysis of the Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS) in adults

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Family Medicine and Community Health

Publication Date


Document Type



Substance Abuse and Addiction


INTRODUCTION: The Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS), a 12-item self-administered questionnaire, was designed to measure autonomy in three correlated lower-order symptom domains: withdrawal, psychological dependence, and cue-induced craving. The factor structure of the AUTOS remains an open question; confirmatory analyses in adolescents supported the hierarchical structure, while exploratory analyses in adolescents and adults yield single-factor solutions. Here we seek to determine whether the hypothesized hierarchical structure is valid in adult smokers.

METHODS: The AUTOS was administered to two independent convenience samples of adult current smokers: a calibration sample recruited in the US for online studies, and a confirmation sample drawn from the prospective Nicotine Dependence in Teens study in Montreal. We tested competing hierarchical and single-factor models using the robust weighted least-squares (WLSMV) estimation method.

RESULTS: A single-factor model that allowed correlated error variances between theoretically related items fit well in the calibration sample (n = 434), chi(2)SB(52) = 165.71; chi(2)/df = 3.19; SRMR = 0.03; CFI = 0.96; NNFI = 0.95; RMSEA = 0.07 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.08). Reliability of the single factor was high (omegaB = 0.92) and construct validity was adequate. In the confirmation sample (n = 335), a similar model fit well: chi(2)SB(53) = 126.94; chi(2)/df = 2.44; SRMR = 0.04; CFI = 0.95; NNFI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.07 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.08). Reliability of the single factor was again high (omegaB = 0.92) and construct validity was adequate.

CONCLUSION: The AUTOS is unidimensional in adult smokers.


AUTOS, Adults, Autonomy over tobacco, CFA, Nicotine dependence, Smoking

DOI of Published Version



Addict Behav. 2015 Nov;50:217-21. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.06.033. Epub 2015 Jun 23. Link to article on publisher's site

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Addictive behaviors

PubMed ID