University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications


Cross reactivity of serum antibody responses elicited by DNA vaccines expressing HA antigens from H1N1 subtype influenza vaccines in the past 30 years

UMMS Affiliation

Laboratory of Nucleic Acid Vaccines; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology

Publication Date


Document Type



Animals; Antibodies, Viral; Cross Reactions; Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus; Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype; Influenza Vaccines; Rabbits; Vaccines, DNA


Immunoprophylaxis and Therapy | Influenza Virus Vaccines


In the past three decades, ten H1 subtype influenza vaccines have been recommended for global seasonal flu vaccination. Some of them were used only for one year before being replaced by another H1 flu vaccine while others may be used for up to seven years. While the selection of a new seasonal flu vaccine was based on the escape of a new emerging virus that was not effectively protected by the existing flu formulation, there is limited information on the magnitude and breadth of cross reactivity among H1 subtype virus circulation over a long period. In the current study, HA-expressing DNA vaccines were constructed to express individual HA antigens from H1 subtype vaccines used in the past 30 y. Rabbits naive to HA antibody responses were immunized with these HA DNA vaccines and the cross reactivity of these sera against HA antigen and related H1 viruses in the same period was studied. Our data indicate that the level of cross reactivity was different for different viral isolates and the key mutations responsible for the cross reactivity may involve only a limited number of residues. Our results provide useful information for the development of improved seasonal vaccines than can achieve broad protection against viruses within the same H1 subtype.

DOI of Published Version



Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Oct;9(10):2049-59. doi: 10.4161/hv.25735. Epub 2013 Jul 24. Link to article on publisher's site

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Human vaccines and immunotherapeutics

PubMed ID