University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications


Cigarette smoking and gestational diabetes mellitus in Hispanic woman

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology; Department of Pediatrics

Publication Date


Document Type



Adolescent; Adult; Diabetes, Gestational; Ethnic Groups; Female; Hispanic Americans; Humans; Pregnancy; Prenatal Care; Prospective Studies; Risk Factors; Smoking; Young Adult


Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Endocrine System Diseases | Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism | Maternal and Child Health | Obstetrics and Gynecology | Substance Abuse and Addiction | Women's Health


AIMS: Hispanic women are at increased risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) as compared to non-Hispanic white women. While smoking has been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, studies of smoking and GDM are sparse and conflicting. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between cigarette smoking and GDM in Hispanic women.

METHODS: We conducted a pooled analysis of two Hispanic datasets based in Massachusetts: the UMass Medical Health Care dataset and the Proyecto Buena Salud dataset. A total of 3029 Hispanic prenatal care patients with singleton gestations were included. Cigarette smoking prior to and during pregnancy was collected via self-report. Diagnosis of GDM was abstracted from medical records and confirmed by study obstetricians.

RESULTS: One-fifth of participants (20.4%) reported smoking prior to pregnancy, and 11.0% reported smoking in pregnancy. A total of 143 women (4.7%) were diagnosed with GDM. We did not observe an association between pre-pregnancy cigarette smoking and odds of GDM (multivariable OR=0.77, 95% CI 0.47, 1.25). In contrast, smoking during pregnancy was associated with a 54% reduction in odds of GDM (OR=0.46, 95% CI 0.22, 0.95). However, this association was no longer statistically significant after adjustment for age, parity, and study site (OR=0.47, 95% CI 0.23, 1.00).

CONCLUSIONS: In this population of Hispanic pregnant women, we did not observe statistically significant associations between pre-pregnancy smoking and odds of GDM. A reduction in odds of GDM among those who smoked during pregnancy was no longer apparent after adjustment for important diabetes risk factors.

DOI of Published Version



Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2014 Jul;105(1):126-34. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2014.04.026. Epub 2014 May 9.Link to article on publisher's site

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Diabetes research and clinical practice

PubMed ID