University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications


Smoking among individuals with schizophrenia in Korea: gender differences

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Psychiatry

Publication Date


Document Type



Caffeine; Female; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Republic of Korea; Schizophrenia; Schizophrenic Psychology; Sex Factors; Smoking; Smoking Cessation


Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms | Mental Disorders | Psychiatry | Psychiatry and Psychology | Substance Abuse and Addiction


OBJECTIVE: This study examined gender differences in smoking and quitting among individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia in Korea. In addition, the study investigated differences in caffeine use by gender and smoking status. METHOD: An anonymous self-report survey was conducted with psychiatric inpatients. RESULTS: Compared to males, females were less likely to be current smokers (P < .001) and more likely to be former smokers (P < .01). Females were also less likely to be daily caffeine users (P < .001). Having more years of education (P < .05) and higher nicotine dependence scores (P<.05) were associated with decreased odds of intending to quit smoking, whereas having more previous quit attempts (P<.01) was associated with increased odds. These findings were significant even after adjusting for gender. Smokers were more likely to be daily caffeine users (P < .001) than their non-smoking counterparts. CONCLUSION: Nurses in Korea should play an active role in tobacco control for patients with schizophrenia by providing cessation counseling and educating the effect of caffeine use on cigarette consumption, while tailoring the service to gender differences found in this study.

DOI of Published Version



Arch Psychiatr Nurs. 2013 Oct;27(5):241-5. doi: 10.1016/j.apnu.2013.06.002. Link to article on publisher's site

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Archives of psychiatric nursing

PubMed ID