UMass Chan Medical School Faculty Publications

UMMS Affiliation

Program in Molecular Medicine

Publication Date

2022-03-03

Document Type

Article Preprint

Disciplines

Immunology and Infectious Disease | Infectious Disease | Microbiology | Virus Diseases

Abstract

There is increasing evidence that the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection among vaccinated individuals is variant-specific, suggesting that protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 may differ by variant. We enrolled vaccinated (n = 39) and unvaccinated (n = 11) individuals with acute, symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Delta or Omicron infection and performed SARS-CoV-2 viral load quantification, whole-genome sequencing, and variant-specific antibody characterization at the time of acute illness and convalescence. Viral load at the time of infection was inversely correlated with antibody binding and neutralizing antibody responses. Increases in antibody titers and neutralizing activity occurred at convalescence in a variant-specific manner. Across all variants tested, convalescent neutralization titers in unvaccinated individuals were markedly lower than in vaccinated individuals. For individuals infected with the Delta variant, neutralizing antibody responses were weakest against BA.2, whereas infection with Omicron BA.1 variant generated a broader response against all tested variants, including BA.2.

Keywords

Infectious Diseases, SARS-CoV-2, vaccine, immunity, variants, breakthrough infection

Rights and Permissions

The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

DOI of Published Version

10.1101/2022.03.02.22271731

Source

Seaman MS, Siedner MJ, Boucau J, Lavine CL, Ghantous F, Liew MY, Mathews J, Singh A, Marino C, Regan J, Uddin R, Choudhary MC, Flynn JP, Chen G, Stuckwisch AM, Lipiner T, Kittilson A, Melberg M, Gilbert RF, Reynolds Z, Iyer SL, Chamberlin GC, Vyas TD, Vyas JM, Goldberg MB, Luban J, Li JZ, Barczak AK, Lemieux JE. Vaccine Breakthrough Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 Delta or Omicron (BA.1) Variant Leads to Distinct Profiles of Neutralizing Antibody Responses. medRxiv [Preprint]. 2022 Mar 3:2022.03.02.22271731. doi: 10.1101/2022.03.02.22271731. PMID: 35262094; PMCID: PMC8902886. Link to preprint on medRxiv.

Comments

This article is a preprint. Preprints are preliminary reports of work that have not been certified by peer review.

Full author list omitted for brevity. For the full list of authors, see article.

Related Resources

View preprint in PubMed

Journal/Book/Conference Title

medRxiv

PubMed ID

35262094

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

Share

COinS