University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

UMMS Affiliation

Program in Molecular Medicine; Department of Molecular, Cell and Cancer Biology; Diabetes Center of Excellence; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology; Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Publication Date

2021-06-08

Document Type

Article Preprint

Disciplines

Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins | Animal Experimentation and Research | Immunology of Infectious Disease | Investigative Techniques | Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides | Pathology | Viruses

Abstract

Human blood innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), which include ILCs and natural killer (NK) cells, derive from a common CD117+ILC precursor (ILCP). Yet, the relationship among the ILC subsets remains unclear. Bulk and single cell RNA-Seq and ATAC-Seq showed that blood ILC subsets cluster into ILC2s, ILCPs, a mixed cluster of CD56dim and CD56 NK cells, and a separate cluster of CD56hiNK cells that share features with both ILCs and CD56dimNK cells. In surprising contrast to mice, tissue repair protein amphiregulin was produced by human NK cells, with higher levels in CD56hiNK cells than in ILCs. Amphiregulin production by human NK cells was promoted by TCF7/WNT signaling and inhibited by TGFB1, a cytokine elevated in people living with HIV-1. Knockout of RUNX3, a WNT antagonist downstream of TGFB1, increased amphiregulin production in human NK cells. CD4+T cell depletion in people living with HIV-1, or from PBMCs in tissue culture, was associated with expansion of metabolically inert, nonfunctional CD56NK cells. Experiments in tissue culture and in humanized mice revealed that CD56NK cells are derived from CD56dimNK cells, and that CD4+T cell-derived IL-2 stimulates MTOR activity in CD56dimNK cells to prevent this transition. These findings clarify how ILC subsets are related to each other and provide insight into how HIV-1 infection disrupts ILC homeostasis and contributes to pathology.

Keywords

Immunology, HIV-1, cytokines, pathology

Rights and Permissions

The copyright holder for this preprint is the author/funder, who has granted bioRxiv a license to display the preprint in perpetuity. It is made available under a CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license.

DOI of Published Version

10.1101/2021.04.20.440368

Source

bioRxiv 2021.04.20.440368; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.20.440368. Link to preprint on bioRxiv.

Comments

This article is a preprint. Preprints are preliminary reports of work that have not been certified by peer review.

The PDF available for download is Version 2 of this preprint. The complete version history of this preprint is available at bioRxiv.

Journal/Book/Conference Title

bioRxiv

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 4.0 License.

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