University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Title

Persistent pain after motor vehicle collision: comparative effectiveness of opioids vs nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs prescribed from the emergency department-a propensity matched analysis

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Quantitative Health Science

Publication Date

2017-02-01

Document Type

Article

Disciplines

Emergency Medicine | Pain Management | Pathological Conditions, Signs and Symptoms

Abstract

Each year millions of Americans present to the emergency department (ED) for care after a motor vehicle collision (MVC); the majority ( > 90%) are discharged to home after evaluation. Acute musculoskeletal pain is the norm in this population, and such patients are typically discharged to home with prescriptions for oral opioid analgesics or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The influence of acute pain management on subsequent pain outcomes in this common ED population is unknown. We evaluated the effect of opioid analgesics vs NSAIDs initiated from the ED on the presence of moderate to severe musculoskeletal pain and ongoing opioid use at 6 weeks in a large cohort of adult ED patients presenting to the ED after MVC (n = 948). The effect of opioids vs NSAIDs was evaluated using an innovative quasi-experimental design method using propensity scores to account for covariate imbalances between the 2 treatment groups. No difference in risk for moderate to severe musculoskeletal pain at 6 weeks was observed between those discharged with opioid analgesics vs NSAIDs (risk difference = 7.2% [95% confidence interval: -5.2% to 19.5%]). However, at follow-up participants prescribed opioids were more likely than those prescribed NSAIDs to report use of prescription opioids medications at week 6 (risk difference = 17.5% [95% confidence interval: 5.8%-29.3%]). These results suggest that analgesic choice at ED discharge does not influence the development of persistent moderate to severe musculoskeletal pain 6 weeks after an MVC, but may result in continued use of prescription opioids. Supported by NIAMS R01AR056328 and AHRQ 5K12HS022998.

Keywords

Opioid analgesics, Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, Acute pain, Persistent pain, Chronic pain, Motor-vehicle collision, Causal inference, Propensity matching

DOI of Published Version

10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000756

Source

Pain. 2017 Feb;158(2):289-295. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000756. Link to article on publisher's site

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Pain

PubMed ID

28092325

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