Suspected Adulteration of Commercial Kratom Products with 7-Hydroxymitragynine
Department of Emergency Medicine, Division of Medical Toxicology
Emergency Medicine | Medical Toxicology
INTRODUCTION: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use. We purchased several commercially available Kratom analogs for analysis and through our results, present evidence of probable adulteration with the highly potent and addictive plant alkaloid, 7-hydroxymitragynine.
METHODS: A simple and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed for simultaneous quantification of mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine in methanol extract of marketed Kratom supplements.
RESULTS: We found multiple commercial Kratom products to have concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine that are substantially higher than those found in raw M. speciosa leaves.
CONCLUSIONS: We have found multiple packaged commercial Kratom products likely to contain artificially elevated concentrations of 7-hydroxymitragynine, the alkaloid responsible for M. speciosa's concerning mechanistic and side effect profile. This study describes a unique form of product adulteration, which stresses the importance of increased dietary supplement oversight of Kratom-containing supplements.
DOI of Published Version
J Med Toxicol. 2016 Dec;12(4):341-349. Epub 2016 Oct 17. Link to article on publisher's site
Journal of medical toxicology : official journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Lydecker, Alicia G.; Sharma, Abhisheak; McCurdy, Christopher R.; Avery, Bonnie A.; Babu, Kavita M.; and Boyer, Edward W., "Suspected Adulteration of Commercial Kratom Products with 7-Hydroxymitragynine" (2016). Emergency Medicine Publications and Presentations. 127.