UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine

Publication Date


Document Type

Article Postprint


Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins | Hemic and Immune Systems | Immunology of Infectious Disease | Immunoprophylaxis and Therapy | Infectious Disease | Virology | Virus Diseases


The current study aims to develop a safe and highly immunogenic COVID-19 vaccine. The novel combination of a DNA vaccine encoding the full-length Spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 and a recombinant S1 protein vaccine induced high level neutralizing antibody and T cell immune responses in both small and large animal models. More significantly, the co-delivery of DNA and protein components at the same time elicited full protection against intratracheal challenge of SARS-CoV-2 viruses in immunized rhesus macaques. As both DNA and protein vaccines have been proven safe in previous human studies, and DNA vaccines are capable of eliciting germinal center B cell development, which is critical for high -affinity memory B cell responses, the DNA and protein co-delivery vaccine approach has great potential to serve as a safe and effective approach to develop COVID-19 vaccines that provide long-term protection.


DNA vaccine, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, non-human primate, protein vaccine, spike glycoprotein

Rights and Permissions

This is an Accepted Manuscript version of the following article: Emerg Microbes Infect. 2021 Feb 8:1-19. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2021.1887767. Accepted manuscript posted as allowed by the publisher's green open access sharing policy at

DOI of Published Version



Li Y, Bi Y, Xiao H, Yao Y, Liu X, Hu Z, Duan J, Yang Y, Li Z, Li Y, Zhang H, Ding C, Yang J, Li H, He Z, Liu L, Hu G, Liu S, Che Y, Wang S, Li Q, Lu S, Cun W. A Novel DNA and Protein Combination COVID-19 Vaccine Formulation Provides Full Protection against SARS-CoV-2 in Rhesus Macaques. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2021 Feb 8:1-19. doi: 10.1080/22221751.2021.1887767. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33555988. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Emerging microbes and infections


Full author list omitted for brevity. For the full list of authors, see article.

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Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID