Predicting freedom from clinical events in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events
Center for Outcomes Research
Acute Coronary Syndrome; Adult; Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Electrocardiography; Epidemiologic Methods; Female; Heart Failure; Hospitalization; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Myocardial Infarction; Prognosis
Health Services Research
OBJECTIVE: To identify patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) with a low likelihood of any adverse in-hospital event. Design, setting and
PATIENTS: Data were analysed from 24 097 patients with NSTEMI or unstable angina included in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (January 2001 to September 2007).
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In-hospital events were myocardial infarction, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure or shock, major bleeding, stroke or death. Two-thirds of the patients were randomly chosen for model development and the remainder for model validation. Multiple logistic regression identified predictors of freedom from an in-hospital event, and a Freedom-from-Event score was developed.
RESULTS: Of the 16 127 patients in the model development group, 19.1% experienced an in-hospital adverse event. Fifteen factors independently predicted freedom from an adverse event: younger age; lower Killip class; unstable angina presentation; no hypotension; no ST deviation; no cardiac arrest at presentation; normal creatinine; decreased pulse rate; no hospital transfer; no history of diabetes, heart failure, peripheral arterial disease, or atrial fibrillation; prehospital use of statins, and no chronic warfarin. In the validation group, 18.6% experienced an adverse event. The model discriminated well between patients experiencing an in-hospital event and those who did not in both derivation and validation groups (c-statistic = 0.77 in both). Patients in the three lowest risk deciles had a very low in-hospital mortality (<0.5%) and an uncomplicated clinical course (>93% event-free in hospital). The model also predicted freedom from postdischarge events (death, myocardial infarction, stroke; c-statistic = 0.77).
CONCLUSIONS: The GRACE Freedom-from-Event score can predict the in-hospital course of NSTE-ACS, and identifies up to 30% of the admitted population at low risk of death or any adverse in-hospital event.
DOI of Published Version
Heart. 2009 Jun;95(11):888-94. Epub 2009 Feb 25. Link to article on publisher's site
Heart (British Cardiac Society)
Brieger D, Fox KA, Fitzgerald G, Eagle KA, Budaj A, Avezum A, Granger CB, Costa B, Anderson FA, Steg PG. (2009). Predicting freedom from clinical events in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes: the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events. GRACE Publications. https://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.2008.153387. Retrieved from https://escholarship.umassmed.edu/cor_grace/16