Drug Resistance Mutations Alter Dynamics of Inhibitor-Bound HIV-1 Protease

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmacology

Publication Date


Document Type



Biochemistry | Biochemistry, Biophysics, and Structural Biology | Chemistry | Molecular Biology


Under the selective pressure of therapy, HIV-1 protease mutants resistant to inhibitors evolve to confer drug resistance. Such mutations can impact both the dynamics and structures of the bound and unbound forms of the enzyme. Flap+ is a multidrug-resistant variant of HIV-1 protease with a combination of primary and secondary resistance mutations (L10I, G48V, I54V, V82A) and a strikingly altered thermodynamic profile for darunavir (DRV) binding relative to the wild-type protease. We elucidated the impact of these mutations on protein dynamics in the DRV-bound state using molecular dynamics simulations and NMR relaxation experiments. Both methods concur in that the conformational ensemble and dynamics of protease are impacted by the drug resistance mutations in Flap+ variant. Surprisingly this change in ensemble dynamics is different from that observed in the unliganded form of the same variant (Cai, Y. et al. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 3452-3462). Our comparative analysis of both inhibitor-free and bound states presents a comprehensive picture of the altered dynamics in drug-resistant mutant HIV-1 protease and underlies the importance of incorporating dynamic analysis of the whole system, including the unliganded state, into revealing drug resistance mechanisms.

DOI of Published Version



J Chem Theory Comput. 2014 Aug 12;10(8):3438-3448. Epub 2014 Jun 12. Link to article on publisher's site

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Journal of chemical theory and computation

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Link to Article in PubMed

PubMed ID