Selected diet and lifestyle factors are associated with estrogen metabolites in a multiracial/ethnic population of women
Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine
Anticarcinogenic Agents; Body Size; *Diet; Estrogens; *Ethnic Groups; Exercise; Female; Flavonoids; Humans; Hydroxyestrones; *Life Style; Middle Aged; Phenols; Population Surveillance; Smoking; United States
Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences | Women's Studies
Diet and lifestyle factors, body size, and smoking behavior may influence estrogen metabolism, but the nature of these relations may vary according to race/ethnic groups. We evaluated the association of lifestyle factors with estrogen metabolites 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE1) in a racially diverse population. With a cross-sectional study design, urine samples from 1881 African-American, Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese, and Hispanic women, aged 42-52 y, from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) were assayed by EIA for 2-OHE1 and 16alpha-OHE1. Dietary factors and beverages were measured using a modified Block FFQ. Dietary fiber, vegetable and fruit servings, Brassica vegetables, polyphenols, coffee, caffeine, green and black tea, and total alcohol and wine were related to metabolite values using multiple variable regression analyses. In adjusted analyses, 2-OHE1 concentrations were significantly associated with race/ethnicity, weight, smoking, and consumption of hydroxybenzoic acid, anthocyanidins, wine, and caffeine (P < 0.05). Regression models incorporating these variables explained 19-20% of the variation in 2-OHE1 concentrations. Regression models for 16alpha-OHE1, which explained 16-17% of the variability, included race/ethnicity, smoking, caffeine, total dietary fiber, and fiber from fruits and vegetables as variables. These associations may reflect why increased consumption of polyphenol-containing foods and fruit as well as decreased smoking, caffeine intake, and body size would be consistent with hypothesized benefits and risks for selected health outcomes.
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Citation: J Nutr. 2006 Jun;136(6):1588-95.