Angiogenesis and macrophage activation in endometriosis
Department of Surgery
Medical Subject Headings
Cells, Cultured; Cytokines; Endometriosis; Endometrium; Estradiol; Female; Humans; *Macrophage Activation; Macrophages; *Neovascularization, Pathologic; Stromal Cells
Recent studies suggest that the symptoms associated with endometriosis are the result of local peritoneal inflammation. Increased concentrations of activated pelvic macrophages and lymphocytes and the elevated levels of specific cytokines and growth factors reviewed above support this hypothesis. The precise roles of these soluble factors are currently unknown, but we propose that a complex network of endometrial cytokines are normally regulated by hormones produced during the ovulatory cycle. Ectopic endometrial implants also are subject to these same endocrine cues. The secretion of these proinflammatory proteins by endometriosis lesions into the peritoneal microenvironment appears to cause a recruitment of capillaries and activated inflammatory cells to the implant. Future therapeutic strategies directed to ameliorate the inflammatory reaction associated with endometriosis should not ignore the likely physiological actions of many of the same bioactive molecules in normal eutopic endometrial function.
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Citation: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1997 Sep 26;828:194-207. Link to article on publisher's website