Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Tiffany Moore Simas
Medical Subject Headings
Pregnancy Complications; Diabetes, Gestational; Weight Gain; Glucose Tolerance Test; Hispanic Americans
Life Sciences | Maternal and Child Health | Medicine and Health Sciences | Obstetrics and Gynecology
Background: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) complicates 4–7% of U.S. pregnancies. Diabetes and obesity rates are consistently higher in Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic whites. Early-to-mid gestational weight gain (GWG) has been thought to be associated with GDM risk; however, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) found insufficient evidence when re-examining GWG guidelines in 2009.
Objective: To investigate associations of GWG adherence per 2009 IOM guidelines prior to 1-hr 50g Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT), or glucola, with GDM diagnoses in Latinas.
Methods: The study is a retrospective chart review of all Hispanic women delivered by UMass Memorial faculty between 4/1/06-3/31/11 and received prenatal care at faculty-resident practices (n=1163). Pre-pregnancy weight and height, weight and gestational age (GA) most proximate to glucola and 100g GTT where appropriate, lab results and relevant demographics were abstracted. Weight gain was categorized as inadequate, appropriate or excessive according to 2009 IOM Guidelines with adjustment for gestational age. Mean and standard deviation (SD) and frequency measures reported for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Comparisons were evaluated with chi-squared tests with statistical significance set at p<0.05.
Results: Data for 1115 subjects was analyzed. Preliminary cohort was mean age 25.3 years (sd±6.0), mean gravidity 2.8 (sd±1.8) and 72.1% English and 26.4% Spanish-speaking. Eleven subjects excluded for pregestational diabetes. BMI calculable for 858 subjects (5.4% underweight, 40.3% normal, 26.0% overweight and 28.3% obese); 70 subjects missing GWG prior to glucola. Seven hundred eighty-eight subjects had complete data, on which remainder of analyses were performed. By 2009 IOM guidelines, 174 (22.1%), 193 (24.5%) and 421 (53.4%) gained inadequately, appropriately and excessively as per BMI criteria, respectively. Overall, 86 of 788 diagnosed with GDM (10.9%). According to weight gain adherence, 14 of 174 (8.0%) inadequate-gainers, 20 of 193 (10.4%) appropriate-gainers and 52 of 421 (12.4%) excessive-gainers were diagnosed with GDM. Of subjects with GDM diagnosis (n=86), 16.3%, 23.3% and 60.5% were inadequate, appropriate and excessive-gainers, respectively. Compared to appropriate gainers, the crude odds ratio and 95% CI for GDM diagnosis was 1.22 (0.71-2.11) for excessive-gainers and 0.76 (0.37-1.55) for inadequate-gainers. No statistically significant association between pre-glucola GWG and GDM detected (p=0.3).
Conclusion: The rate of GDM in this cohort of Latina women is almost double that of the general population. Though no statistically significant association was identified, the majority of patients diagnosed with GDM were classified as excessive-gainers as per pre-glucola GWG adherence. The trend warrants further evaluation of this population at increased risk for GDM as well as analysis within high-risk subgroups.
BuAbbud, Anna; Callaghan, Katherine; Liao, Xun; and Moore Simas, Tiffany A., "Gestational Weight Gain Prior to Glucola and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus" (2012). University of Massachusetts Medical School. Senior Scholars Program. Paper 126.