Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: a systemic fibrosing disease resulting from gadolinium exposure

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Rheumatology



Document Type


Medical Subject Headings

Contracture; Contrast Media; Diagnosis, Differential; Gadolinium; Humans; Hyperpigmentation; Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy; induced; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic; Risk Factors; Skin


Musculoskeletal Diseases | Rheumatology | Skin and Connective Tissue Diseases


Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is an iatrogenic fibrosing disorder that primarily affects individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) following exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) during imaging procedures. NSF is characterised by skin thickening, tethering and hyperpigmentation; flexion contractures of joints; and extracutaneous fibrosis. This article reviews the history, clinical manifestations, epidemiology, histopathology and pathophysiology of this disabling disease.

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Citation: Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2012 Aug;26(4):489-503. doi: 10.1016/j.berh.2012.07.008. Link to article on publisher's site

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