Heart rate and subsequent blood pressure in young adults: the CARDIA study
Department of Quantitative Health Sciences
Adolescent; Adult; *African Continental Ancestry Group; Blood Pressure; *European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Heart Rate; Humans; Male; Multivariate Analysis; Sex Factors
Bioinformatics | Biostatistics | Epidemiology | Health Services Research
The objective of the present study was to examine the hypothesis that baseline heart rate (HR) predicts subsequent blood pressure (BP) independently of baseline BP. In the multicenter longitudinal Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study of black and white men and women initially aged 18 to 30 years, we studied 4762 participants who were not current users of antihypertensive drugs and had no history of heart problems at the baseline examination (1985-1986). In each race-sex subgroup, we estimated the effect of baseline HR on BP 2, 5, 7, and 10 years later by use of repeated measures regression analysis, adjusting for baseline BP, age, education, body fatness, physical fitness, fasting insulin, parental hypertension, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, oral contraceptive use, and change of body mass index from baseline. The association between baseline HR and subsequent systolic BP (SBP) was explained by multivariable adjustment. However, HR was an independent predictor of subsequent diastolic BP (DBP) regardless of initial BP and other confounders in white men, white women, and black men (0.7 mm Hg increase per 10 bpm). We incorporated the part of the association that was already present at baseline by not adjusting for baseline DBP: the mean increase in subsequent DBP was 1.3 mm Hg per 10 bpm in white men, white women, and black men. A high HR may be considered a risk factor for subsequent high DBP in young persons.
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Citation: Hypertension. 1999 Feb;33(2):640-6.
Kim, Jang-Rak; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Liu, K.; Williams, O. Dale; Jacobs, David R.; and Oberman, Albert, "Heart rate and subsequent blood pressure in young adults: the CARDIA study" (1999). Quantitative Health Sciences Publications and Presentations. 129.