Discriminating clinical features of heart failure with preserved vs. reduced ejection fraction in the community
Department of Quantitative Health Sciences
Medical Subject Headings
Age Factors; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Arrhythmias, Cardiac; Coronary Disease; Female; Heart Failure; Hospitalization; Humans; Male; Myocardial Ischemia; Potassium; Sex Factors; Stroke Volume; Ventricular Outflow Obstruction
Cardiovascular Diseases | Epidemiology | Health Services Research
AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is a major public health burden worldwide. Of patients presenting with HF, 30-55% have a preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) rather than a reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). Our objective was to examine discriminating clinical features in new-onset HFPEF vs. HFREF.
METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 712 participants in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) hospitalized for new-onset HF between 1981 and 2008 (median age 81 years, 53% female), 46% had HFPEF (EF >45%) and 54% had HFREF (EF ≤45%). In multivariable logistic regression, coronary heart disease (CHD), higher heart rate, higher potassium, left bundle branch block, and ischaemic electrocardiographic changes increased the odds of HFREF; female sex and atrial fibrillation increased the odds of HFPEF. In aggregate, these clinical features predicted HF subtype with good discrimination (c-statistic 0.78). Predictors were examined in the Enhanced Feedback for Effective Cardiac Treatment (EFFECT) study. Of 4436 HF patients (median age 75 years, 47% female), 32% had HFPEF and 68% had HFREF. Distinguishing clinical features were consistent between FHS and EFFECT, with comparable discrimination in EFFECT (c-statistic 0.75). In exploratory analyses examining the traits of the intermediate EF group (EF 35-55%), CHD predisposed to a decrease in EF, whereas other clinical traits showed an overlapping spectrum between HFPEF and HFREF.
CONCLUSION: Multiple clinical characteristics at the time of initial HF presentation differed in participants with HFPEF vs. HFREF. While CHD was clearly associated with a lower EF, overlapping characteristics were observed in the middle of the left ventricular EF range spectrum.
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Citation: Eur Heart J. 2012 Jul;33(14):1734-41. Epub 2012 Apr 16. Link to article on publisher's site