Keeping Clubhouses Open: Toward a Roadmap for Sustainability

UMMS Affiliation

Department of Psychiatry, The Program for Clubhouse Research, Systems and Psychosocial Advances Research Center



Document Type



Mental and Social Health | Other Rehabilitation and Therapy | Psychiatry | Psychiatry and Psychology


Clubhouses are recovery centers that help persons with serious mental illness obtain and maintain community-based employment, education, housing, social integration, and other services. Key informants from U.S. clubhouses were interviewed to create a conceptual framework for clubhouse sustainability. Survival analyses tested this model for 261 clubhouses. Clubhouses stayed open significantly longer if they had received full accreditation, had more administrative autonomy, and received funding from multiple rather than sole sources. Cox regression analyses showed that freestanding clubhouses which were accredited endured the longest. Budget size, clubhouse size, and access to managed care did not contribute significantly to sustainability.

Rights and Permissions

Citation: Adm Policy Ment Health. 2016 Sep 15. [Epub ahead of print] Link to article on publisher's site

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed


Clubhouse, Psychiatric rehabilitation, Survival, Sustainability

PubMed ID