Metabolic dysfunction in women with bipolar disorder: the potential influence of family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus
Department of Psychiatry
Medical Subject Headings
Adult; Bipolar Disorder; Blood Glucose; Body Mass Index; Case-Control Studies; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Female; Humans; Insulin; Insulin Resistance; Multivariate Analysis; Obesity; Psychiatric Status Rating Scales; Risk Factors; Waist Circumference
Mental and Social Health | Psychiatry | Psychiatry and Psychology
OBJECTIVE: Overweight/obesity, insulin resistance (IR), and other types of metabolic dysfunction are common in patients with bipolar disorder (BD); however, the pathophysiological underpinnings of metabolic dysfunction in BD are not fully understood. Family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus (FamHxDM2), which has been shown to have deleterious effects on metabolic function in the general population, may play a role in the metabolic dysfunction observed in BD.
METHODS: Using multivariate analysis of variance, the effects of BD illness and/or FamHxDM2 were examined relative to metabolic biomarkers in 103 women with BD and 36 healthy, age-matched control women.
RESULTS: As a group, women with BD had higher levels of fasting plasma insulin (FPI) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG), higher homeostatic assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) scores, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and hip circumference (HC) compared to control women. FamHxDM2 was associated with significantly worse metabolic biomarkers among women with BD but not among healthy control women. Among women with BD, there was a significant main effect of FamHxDM2 on FPI, HOMA-IR, BMI, WC, and HC, even after controlling for type of BD illness, duration of medication exposure, and depression severity. Metabolic biomarkers were not influenced by use of weight-liable psychotropic medication (WLM), even after controlling for type of BD illness, duration of medication exposure, and depression severity.
CONCLUSIONS: Women with BD have overall worse metabolic biomarkers than age-matched control women. The use of WLM, duration of medication use, type of BD illness, and depression severity did not appear to be associated with more pronounced metabolic dysfunction. FamHxDM2 may represent a risk factor for the development of IR in women with BD. Further, focused studies of the endocrine profiles of families of BD patients are needed.