Community-based, acute posttraumatic stress management: a description and evaluation of a psychosocial-intervention continuum
Department of Psychiatry
Medical Subject Headings
Acute Disease; Adolescent; Adult; Boston; Child; Community Health Planning; Community Mental Health Services; Comprehensive Health Care; Continuity of Patient Care; Homicide; Humans; Life Change Events; New York City; Organizational Case Studies; Program Evaluation; Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic; Suicide; Suicide, Attempted; Terrorism; Trauma Centers
Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Mental and Social Health | Psychiatric and Mental Health | Psychiatry and Psychology
Much of today's psychological trauma can be identified as resulting from sudden and seemingly random events, and particularly from events that involve the loss of human life. This article presents a perspective on how behavioral health providers may approach the design, development, and implementation of community-based psychological trauma interventions. These interventions allow those community members most affected by the trauma to play a central role in the resolution of, and community adaptation to, traumatic losses. After a brief discussion of "critical incident stress debriefing"--a common form of psychological "first aid" that is sometimes used following traumatic events that affect a community--the article turns to the description of a community-based trauma-response program that provides a continuum-of-care model for the care and management of individual and group reactions to shared, traumatic events. A recent evaluation of that program, which was developed by the Community Services Program of the Trauma Center in Boston, is presented as an important first step toward determining the types of community-based responses that show promise in our efforts to ameliorate the impact of traumatic events in communities nationwide and internationally.