Abuse potential of carbohydrates for overweight carbohydrate cravers
Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine
Adolescent; Adult; *Affect; Behavior, Addictive; Choice Behavior; Dietary Carbohydrates; Dietary Proteins; Double-Blind Method; Eating Disorders; Female; Food Preferences; Humans; Middle Aged; *Motivation; Overweight; Self Administration; Taste
Behavioral Disciplines and Activities | Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms | Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Preventive Medicine
RATIONALE: The long-rejected construct of food addiction is undergoing re-examination.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether a novel carbohydrate food shows abuse potential for rigorously defined carbohydrate cravers, as evidenced by selective self-administration and mood enhancement during double-blind discrimination testing.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Discrete trials choice testing was performed with 61 overweight (BMI m = 27.64, SD = 2.59) women (ages 18-45; 19.70% African American) whose diet records showed >4 weekly afternoon/evening emotional-eating episodes confined to snacks with carbohydrate to protein ratio of >6:1. After being induced into a sad mood, participants were exposed, double-blind and in counterbalanced order, to taste-matched carbohydrate and protein beverages. They were asked to choose and self-administer the drink that made them feel better.
RESULTS: Women overwhelmingly chose the carbohydrate beverage, even though blinded. Mixed-effects regression modeling, controlling for beverage order, revealed greater liking and greater reduction in dysphoria after administration of the carbohydrate beverage compared to the protein beverage but no differential effect on vigor.
CONCLUSION: For women who crave them, carbohydrates appear to display abuse potential, plausibly contributing to overconsumption and overweight.
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Citation: Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2008 May;197(4):637-47. Epub 2008 Feb 14. Link to article on publisher's site
Spring, Bonnie J.; Schneider, Kristin L.; Smith, Malaina; Kendzor, Darla; Appelhans, Bradley M.; Hedeker, Donald; and Pagoto, Sherry L., "Abuse potential of carbohydrates for overweight carbohydrate cravers" (2008). Preventive and Behavioral Medicine Publications and Presentations. Paper 93.