A Novel Measure of Dietary Change in a Prostate Cancer Dietary Program Incorporating Mindfulness Training
Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine
Prostatic Neoplasms; Diet Therapy; Mind-Body Therapies; Awareness; Stress, Psychological
Behavioral Disciplines and Activities | Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms | Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Dietetics and Clinical Nutrition | Neoplasms | Preventative Medicine
Diet may represent a modifiable prostate cancer risk factor, but a vegetable-based prostate-healthy diet is a major change for most men. We used a ratio of animal to vegetable proteins (A:V) to evaluate whether a comprehensive dietary change was self-sustaining following completion of 11 weekly dietary and cooking classes that integrated mindfulness training. Thirty-six men with recurring prostate cancer were randomized to the intervention or wait-list control. Assessments were at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Of 17 men randomized to the intervention, 14 completed the requirements. Nineteen were randomized to control and 17 completed requirements. Compared with controls, a significant postintervention (3 months) decrease in A:V in the intervention group (P=0.01) was self-maintained 3 months postintervention (P=0.049). At each assessment, A:V was correlated with lycopene, fiber, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol, four dietary components linked to clinically relevant outcomes in prostate cancer. Change in A:V was also significantly correlated with changes in fiber, saturated fat, and dietary cholesterol intake. Participants reported regular mindfulness training practice, and there was a significant correlation between mindfulness training practice and changes in both initiation and maintenance of the change in A:V. These pilot results provide encouraging evidence for the feasibility of a dietary program that includes mindfulness training in supporting dietary change for men with recurrent prostate cancer and invite further study to explore the possible role of mindfulness training as a means of supporting both initiation of dietary changes and maintenance of those changes over time. All rights reserved.