Social influences on smoking in middle-aged and older women
Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine
Smoking; Women's Health; Middle Aged; Aged; Social Behavior; Health Behavior
Behavioral Disciplines and Activities | Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms | Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Preventative Medicine
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of 2 types of social influence-general social support and living with a smoker-on smoking behavior among middle-aged and older women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants were postmenopausal women who reported smoking at some time in their lives (N = 37,027), who were an average age of 63.3 years at baseline. Analyses used multiple logistic regression and controlled for age, educational level, and ethnicity. In cross-sectional analyses, social support was associated with a lower likelihood and living with a smoker was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current smoker and, among smokers, of being a heavier smoker. Moreover, in prospective analyses among baseline smokers, social support predicted a higher likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation 1-year later. Further, in prospective analyses among former smokers who were not smoking at baseline, social support predicted a lower likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a higher likelihood of smoking relapse 1-year later. Overall, the present results indicate that social influences are important correlates of smoking status, smoking level, smoking cessation, and smoking relapse among middle-aged and older women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).
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Citation: Psychol Addict Behav. 2011 Oct 17. Link to article on publisher's site