Cynicism: Incident diabetes and worsening of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women
Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine
Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms | Community Health | Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism | Public Health | Women's Health
Objective: To determine if self-reported cynical hostility predicted incident diabetes or increase in number of symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.
Design: Prospective study of a subsample of women (n = 3,658) participating in the Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial.
Methods: Subjects: Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years at baseline who were enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial, Hormone Trial or both. Measures: The Cynicism subscale of the Cook-Medley Hostility Questionnaire was used to assess cynical hostility at baseline. Incident diabetes was ascertained by self-report of treatment with insulin or oral hypoglycemic medication at one year. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on number of Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria met at one year.Statistical Analysis: The relationship between baseline cynical hostility and incident diabetes and worsening of metabolic syndrome was assessed from baseline to one year using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models and multivariable logistic regression models, respectively.
Results: Incident diabetes was 36% higher among women in the upper tertile for baseline cynical hostility compared to the lowest tertile (p-trend = 0.05). The odds of a worsening of metabolic syndrome was 27% greater in the highest cynical hostility tertile compared to the lowest tertile (p-trend = 0.04).
Conclusions: Cynical hostility may increase the risk for developing diabetes and worsening of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.
Diabetes, Metabolic syndrome, Mood, Cynicism, Cynical hostility, Postmenopausal women