Long-term alcohol and caffeine intake and risk of sudden cardiac death in women
Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine
Medical Subject Headings
Aged; *Alcohol Drinking; Body Mass Index; Caffeine; Coffee; Death, Sudden, Cardiac; Female; Humans; Intervention Studies; Middle Aged; Postmenopause; Questionnaires; Risk Factors; Smoking; Socioeconomic Factors; Tea
Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms | Clinical Epidemiology | Community Health | Community Health and Preventive Medicine | Public Health | Women's Health
BACKGROUND: Alcohol and caffeine intakes may play a role in the development of sudden cardiac death (SCD) because of their effects on cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate variability, and inflammation.
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to examine the association between long-term alcohol and caffeine intakes and risk of SCD in women.
DESIGN: We examined 93,676 postmenopausal women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study. Women were enrolled between 1993 and 1998 and were followed until August 2009. Women completed a food-frequency questionnaire at baseline and again at year 3. We modeled exposure to alcohol 3 ways: by using baseline intake only, a cumulative average of baseline and year 3 intake, and the most recent reported intake (a simple time-varying analysis).
RESULTS: Intake of 5-15 g alcohol/d (about one drink) was associated with a nonsignificantly reduced risk of SCD compared with 0.1-5 g/d of baseline intake (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.02), of cumulative average intake (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.43, 1.11), and of most recent intake (HR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.96), with adjustment for age, race, income, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, hormone use, and total energy. No association was found between SCD and total caffeine intake (mg/d) or cups of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and caffeinated tea.
CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that about one drink per day (or 5.1-15 g/d) may be associated with a reduced risk of SCD in this population; however, this association was only statistically significant for a model using the most recent alcohol intake. Total caffeine, regular coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and regular tea intake were not associated with the risk of SCD.
This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00000611.