Degradation and recycling of the substrate-binding subunit of type II iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase in astrocytes
Department of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology & Metabolism; Department of Physiology
Animals; Animals, Newborn; Astrocytes; Binding Sites; Brain; Brefeldin A; Cells, Cultured; Cycloheximide; Cyclopentanes; Cytochalasin B; Enzyme Induction; Female; Iodide Peroxidase; Kinetics; Macromolecular Substances; Models, Biological; Molecular Weight; Organelles; Pregnancy; Protein Processing, Post-Translational; Protein Synthesis Inhibitors; Rats; Thyroxine; Triiodothyronine
Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences
Thyroxine dynamically regulates levels of type II iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase (5'D-II) by modulating enzyme inactivation and targeting the enzyme to different pathways of internalization. 5'D-II is an approximately 200-kDa multimeric protein containing a 29-kDa substrate-binding subunit (p29) and an unknown number of other subunits. In the absence of thyroxine (T4), p29 is slowly endocytosed and transported to the lysosomes. T4 treatment rapidly activates an actin-mediated endocytotic pathway and targets the enzyme to the endosomes. In this study, we have characterized the influence of T4 on the intracellular trafficking of 5'D-II. We show that T4 accelerates the rate of 5'D-II inactivation by translocating the enzyme to the interior of the cell and by sequestering p29 in the endosomal pool without accelerating the rate of degradation of p29. This dichotomy between the rapid inactivation of catalytic activity and the much slower degradation of p29 is consistent with the reuse of p29 in the production of 5'D-II activity. Immunocytochemical analysis with a specific anti-p29 IgG shows that pulse affinity-labeled p29 reappears on the plasma membrane approximately 2 h after enzyme internalization in the presence of T4, indicating that p29 is recycled. Despite the ability of p29 to be recycled in the T4-treated cell, 5'D-II catalytic activity requires ongoing protein synthesis, presumably of another enzyme component(s) or an accessory enzyme-related protein. In the absence of T4, enzyme inactivation and p29 degradation are temporally linked, and pulse affinity-labeled p29 is internalized and sequestered in discrete intracellular pools. These data suggest that T4 regulates fundamental processes involved with the turnover of integral membrane proteins and participates in regulating the inter-relationships between the degradation, recycling, and synthetic pathways.
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Citation: J Biol Chem. 1996 Jul 5;271(27):16369-74.
The Journal of biological chemistry
Farwell, Alan P.; Safran, Marjorie; Dubord-Tomasetti, Susan A.; and Leonard, Jack L., "Degradation and recycling of the substrate-binding subunit of type II iodothyronine 5'-deiodinase in astrocytes" (1996). Open Access Articles. 796.