Department of Medicine, Division of Preventive and Behavorial Medicine; Division of Digestive Diseases and Nutrition
Animals; Cytokines; Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay; Gastric Mucosa; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Gene Expression; Gene Expression Profiling; Helicobacter Infections; Helicobacter felis; Inflammation; Intestines; Lymphocytes; Macrophages; Mice; Mice, Knockout; Mucins; Muscle Proteins; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis; Peptides; Receptors, Interleukin-1; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; Stomach
Digestive System Diseases | Genetics and Genomics | Preventive Medicine
Trefoil family factor 2 (TFF2), also known as spasmolytic peptide, is a low-molecular-weight protein that is upregulated in gastric tissues infected with Helicobacter or having other inflammatory conditions, but a precise function is yet to be elucidated. The role of TFF2 in the development of gastritis, colitis, and inflammatory cytokine responses was examined both in vivo and in vitro using wild-type and TFF2 knockout mice. TFF2 knockout and wild-type mice were infected with Helicobacter felis (H. felis) to induce gastritis. Colitis was induced in TFF2 knockout and wild-type mice by administering dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water. Histopathology, clinical disease (colitis), and antibody levels (H. felis) were examined. TFF2 expression in tissues was determined by reverse transcriptase PCR, and the inflammatory and proliferative responses of TFF2-expressing macrophages and spleen cells were examined by cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, thymidine incorporation, and gene array studies. TFF2 knockout mice have increased susceptibility to H. felis-induced gastritis, with enhanced gastric inflammation. They were also more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis, with prolonged colonic hemorrhage and persistent weight loss. Remarkably, TFF2 expression was not limited to the gastrointestinal tract, as suggested in previous studies, but was also present in macrophages and lymphocytes. The inflammatory and proliferative responses of these immune cell types were dysregulated in TFF2 knockout mice. TFF2-/- cells were hyperresponsive to interleukin 1 beta stimulation but showed normal responses to lipopolysaccharide, suggesting a specific role for TFF2 in interleukin 1 receptor but not Toll-like receptor 4 signaling via their Toll-interleukin 1 resistance domains. TFF2-/- lymphocytes also produced higher levels of interleukin 2 than wild-type cells. Thus, TFF2 was expressed in the gastrointestinal cells and in immune cells and was a negative regulator of gastrointestinal inflammation and immune cell cytokine responses. Our studies suggest that TFF2 not only controls gastrointestinal repair but also regulates mononuclear cell inflammatory responses.
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Citation: Infect Immun. 2007 Jan;75(1):471-80. Epub 2006 Nov 13. Link to article on publisher's site
Infection and immunity
Kurt-Jones, Evelyn A.; Cao, LuCheng; Sandor, Frantisek; Rogers, Arlin B.; Whary, Mark T.; Nambiar, Prashant R.; Cerny, Anna M.; Bowen, Glennice N.; Yan, Jing; Takaishi, Shigeo; Chi, Alfred L.; Reed, George W.; Houghton, JeanMarie; Fox, James G.; and Wang, Timothy C., "Trefoil family factor 2 is expressed in murine gastric and immune cells and controls both gastrointestinal inflammation and systemic immune responses" (2006). Open Access Articles. 623.