Insulin produces a growth hormone-like increase in intracellular free calcium concentration in okadaic acid-treated adipocytes
Department of Physiology
Adipocytes; Animals; Calcium; Growth Hormone; Insulin; Intracellular Membranes; Male; Okadaic Acid; Osmolar Concentration; Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains
Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences
In vivo, GH and insulin usually produce opposing effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in adipocytes, even though their signal transduction pathways overlap. However, when added to rat adipocytes that have been made GH deficient, GH briefly produces responses that are qualitatively like those of insulin. Subsequently, GH induces refractoriness to this acute insulin-like response, in a sense restricting its effects to a unique subset of possible physiological actions. Okadaic acid is an inhibitor of type I and IIa phosphoprotein phosphatases and affects glucose metabolism in fat cells in a manner that is reminiscent of GH. Okadaic acid initially mimics the actions of insulin, and subsequently, even after it has been removed by thorough washing, blunts the ability of adipocytes to accelerate glucose metabolism in response to insulin or GH. Because refractoriness to the insulin-like effect of GH is associated with GH-induced increases in intracellular free calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i), we examined the effects of insulin on [Ca2+]i in okadaic acid-treated adipocytes. Adipocytes were incubated with 0.25 microM okadaic acid for 1 h, washed, and reincubated without okadaic acid for 2 h before measurement of [Ca2+]i using fura-2 as a calcium indicator. Neither GH (500 ng/ml) nor insulin (100 microU/ml) affected [Ca2+]i in cells in which glucose metabolism was stimulated, but both hormones rapidly increased [Ca2+]i in adipocytes that were refractory to insulin-like stimulation. The characteristics of the increase in [Ca2+]i produced by insulin were identical to those previously reported for GH. The effect of insulin was mimicked by the dihydropyridine calcium channel activator BayK 5552 or depolarization of the cell membrane with 30 mM KCl and was blocked by the dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker, nimodipine (100 nM), implicating activation of voltage-sensitive L-type Ca2+ channels. The increase in [Ca2+]i was also mimicked by sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol and blocked by inhibitors of protein kinase C (staurosporine, chelerythrine chloride, and calphostin), and D609, an inhibitor of phospholipase C, as reported for GH. Acquisition of the ability to increase [Ca2+]i in response to insulin required a lag period of at least 2 h after removal of okadaic acid and was prevented by inhibitors of RNA and protein synthesis. Adipocytes that were incubated with inhibitors of protein kinase A (KT-5720), or protein kinase C (staurosporine) along with okadaic acid also failed to increase [Ca2+]i in response to insulin. Conversely, adipocytes that were incubated with dibutyryl cAMP, methylisobutyl xanthine, or phorbol ester instead of okadaic acid increased [Ca2+]i when treated with insulin 2 h later. These results suggest that phosphorylated substrates of protein kinases A and C may mediate the transcriptional event(s) that enable adipocytes to activate L-type Ca2+ channels in response to insulin. Blockade of protein kinases A or C or removal of calcium from the incubation medium did not restore the ability of okadaic acid-treated adipocytes to increase glucose metabolism in response to insulin, nor did pretreatment of adipocytes with dibutyryl cAMP or phorbol ester decrease insulin-induced stimulation of glucose metabolism. The failure of insulin to increase glucose metabolism in okadaic acid-treated adipocytes thus cannot be ascribed to the increase in [Ca2+]i. These findings indicate that just as GH can produce an insulin-like response, so too can insulin produce a GH-like response, and highlight the need to understand how specificity of hormone action is achieved in cells that respond to different hormones that share elements of their transduction pathways.
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Citation: Endocrinology. 1998 Dec;139(12):4953-61.
Gaur, Shikha; Schwartz, Yael; Tai, Lih-Ruey; Frick, G. Peter; and Goodman, H. Maurice, "Insulin produces a growth hormone-like increase in intracellular free calcium concentration in okadaic acid-treated adipocytes" (1998). Open Access Articles. 520.