Department of Radiology
The intrauterine device (IUD) is gaining popularity as a reversible form of contraception. Ultrasonography serves as first-line imaging for the evaluation of IUD position in patients with pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, or absent retrieval strings. This review highlights the imaging of both properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs. The problems associated with malpositioned IUDs include expulsion, displacement, embedment, and perforation. Management considerations depend on the severity of the malposition and the presence or absence of symptoms. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has proven to be more sensitive in the evaluation of more subtle findings of malposition, particularly side-arm embedment. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic features of properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs is essential.
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Citation: Ultrasonography. 2015 Jul;34(3):183-94. doi: 10.14366/usg.15010. Epub 2015 Apr 1. Link to article on publisher's site
DOI of Published Version
Contraceptive devices, female, Intrauterine devices, Ultrasonography
Ultrasonography (Seoul, Korea)
Nowitzki, Kristina M.; Hoimes, Matthew L.; Chen, Byron; Zheng, Larry; and Kim, Young H., "Ultrasonography of intrauterine devices" (2015). Open Access Articles. 2706.
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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 License