Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology
Digestive System Diseases | Gastroenterology | Immune System Diseases
Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic, nonbloody diarrhea. Microscopic colitis is more common in women than men and usually affects patients in their sixth and seventh decade. This article reviews the etiology and medical management of microscopic colitis. The etiology of microscopic colitis is unknown, but it is associated with autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, polyarthritis, and thyroid disorders. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor of microscopic colitis. Exposure to medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, is suspected to play a role in microscopic colitis, although their direct causal relationship has not been proven. Multiple medications, including corticosteroids, anti-diarrheals, cholestyramine, bismuth, 5-aminosalicylates, and immunomodulators, have been used to treat microscopic colitis with variable response rates. Budesonide is effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission but relapse rate is as high as 82% when budesonide is discontinued. There is limited data on management of steroid-dependent microscopic colitis or refractory microscopic colitis. Immunomodulators seem to have low response rate 0%-56% for patients with refractory microscopic colitis. Response rate 66%-100% was observed for use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for refractory microscopic colitis. Anti-TNF and diverting ileostomy may be an option in severe or refractory microscopic colitis.
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Citation: World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Aug 7;21(29):8804-10. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i29.8804. Link to article on publisher's site
DOI of Published Version
Chronic diarrhea, Collagenous colitis, Etiology of microscopic colitis, Lymphocytic colitis, Microscopic colitis, Refractory microscopic colitis, Steroid-dependent microscopic colitis
World journal of gastroenterology
Park, Tina; Cave, David R.; and Marshall, Christopher, "Microscopic colitis: A review of etiology, treatment and refractory disease" (2015). Open Access Articles. 2624.
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