Program in Molecular Medicine
Immunology and Infectious Disease | Immunology of Infectious Disease | Immunoprophylaxis and Therapy | Infectious Disease | Microbiology
HIV-2 and SIVMAC are AIDS-causing, zoonotic lentiviruses that jumped to humans and rhesus macaques, respectively, from SIVSM-bearing sooty mangabey monkeys. Cross-species transmission events such as these sometimes necessitate virus adaptation to species-specific, host restriction factors such as TRIM5. Here, a new human restriction activity is described that blocks viruses of the SIVSM/SIVMAC/HIV-2 lineage. Human T, B, and myeloid cell lines, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and dendritic cells were 4 to > 100-fold less transducible by VSV G-pseudotyped SIVMAC, HIV-2, or SIVSM than by HIV-1. In contrast, transduction of six epithelial cell lines was equivalent to that by HIV-1. Substitution of HIV-1 CA with the SIVMAC or HIV-2 CA was sufficient to reduce HIV-1 transduction to the level of the respective vectors. Among such CA chimeras there was a general trend such that CAs from epidemic HIV-2 Group A and B isolates were the most infectious on human T cells, CA from a 1 degrees sooty mangabey isolate was the least infectious, and non-epidemic HIV-2 Group D, E, F, and G CAs were in the middle. The CA-specific decrease in infectivity was observed with either HIV-1, HIV-2, ecotropic MLV, or ALV Env pseudotypes, indicating that it was independent of the virus entry pathway. As2O3, a drug that suppresses TRIM5-mediated restriction, increased human blood cell transduction by SIVMAC but not by HIV-1. Nonetheless, elimination of TRIM5 restriction activity did not rescue SIVMAC transduction. Also, in contrast to TRIM5-mediated restriction, the SIVMAC CA-specific block occurred after completion of reverse transcription and the formation of 2-LTR circles, but before establishment of the provirus. Transduction efficiency in heterokaryons generated by fusing epithelial cells with T cells resembled that in the T cells, indicative of a dominant-acting SIVMAC restriction activity in the latter. These results suggest that the nucleus of human blood cells possesses a restriction factor specific for the CA of HIV-2/SIVMAC/SIVSM and that cross-species transmission of SIVSM to human T cells necessitated adaptation of HIV-2 to this putative restriction factor.
Rights and Permissions
Citation: PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jul 16;11(7):e1005050. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005050. eCollection 2015. Link to article on publisher's site
DOI of Published Version
HIV-1, T cells, HIV-2, Human blood cells, Vector-borne diseases, Viral vectors, Vesicular stomatitis virus, SIV
Pizzato, Massimo; McCauley, Sean Matthew; Neagu, Martha R.; Pertel, Thomas; Firrito, Claudia; Ziglio, Serena; Dauphin, Ann; Zufferey, Madeleine; Berthoux, Lionel; and Luban, Jeremy, "Lv4 Is a Capsid-Specific Antiviral Activity in Human Blood Cells That Restricts Viruses of the SIVMAC/SIVSM/HIV-2 Lineage Prior to Integration" (2015). Open Access Articles. 2545.
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.