Department of Physiology
Arachidonic Acid; *Calcium Channel Blockers; Calcium Channels, L-Type; Cell Line; Humans; Protein Subunits; Receptors, Muscarinic
Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences | Neuroscience and Neurobiology
Arachidonic acid (AA) inhibits the activity of several different voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels by an unknown mechanism at an unknown site. The Ca(2+) channel pore-forming subunit (Ca(V)alpha(1)) is a candidate for the site of AA inhibition because T-type Ca(2+) channels, which do not require accessory subunits for expression, are inhibited by AA. Here, we report the unanticipated role of accessory Ca(V)beta subunits on the inhibition of Ca(V)1.3b L-type (L-) current by AA. Whole cell Ba(2+) currents were measured from recombinant channels expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells at a test potential of -10 mV from a holding potential of -90 mV. A one-minute exposure to 10 microM AA inhibited currents with beta(1b), beta(3), or beta(4) 58, 51, or 44%, respectively, but with beta(2a) only 31%. At a more depolarized holding potential of -60 mV, currents were inhibited to a lesser degree. These data are best explained by a simple model where AA stabilizes Ca(V)1.3b in a deep closed-channel conformation, resulting in current inhibition. Consistent with this hypothesis, inhibition by AA occurred in the absence of test pulses, indicating that channels do not need to open to become inhibited. AA had no effect on the voltage dependence of holding potential-dependent inactivation or on recovery from inactivation regardless of Ca(V)beta subunit. Unexpectedly, kinetic analysis revealed evidence for two populations of L-channels that exhibit willing and reluctant gating previously described for Ca(V)2 channels. AA preferentially inhibited reluctant gating channels, revealing the accelerated kinetics of willing channels. Additionally, we discovered that the palmitoyl groups of beta(2a) interfere with inhibition by AA. Our novel findings that the Ca(V)beta subunit alters kinetic changes and magnitude of inhibition by AA suggest that Ca(V)beta expression may regulate how AA modulates Ca(2+)-dependent processes that rely on L-channels, such as gene expression, enzyme activation, secretion, and membrane excitability.
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Citation: J Gen Physiol. 2009 Apr;133(4):387-403. Link to article on publisher's site