Regulation of Smad activities

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Program in Molecular Medicine

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Animals; Biological Transport; Cell Nucleus; Humans; Models, Biological; Phosphorylation; Smad Proteins; Smad Proteins, Receptor-Regulated; Smad4 Protein; Transforming Growth Factor beta


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


TGF-beta (Transforming Growth Factor-beta) cytokines employ Smad proteins as the intracellular mediator of signaling. Upon TGF-beta stimulation, the cytoplasmic Smads become phosphorylated and consequently accumulate in the nucleus to regulate target gene expression. The cytoplasm-to-nucleus redistribution of Smads, as well as the ability of Smads to activate or repress gene transcription, is under multiple layers of regulation by factors not limited to TGF-beta. With recent advance in the knowledge of regulatory factors impinged on Smads, we are beginning to understand the complexity in cellular responses to TGF-beta.

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Citation: Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Nov-Dec;1759(11-12):503-13. Epub 2006 Nov 15. Link to article on publisher's site

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Link to article in PubMed

Journal/Book/Conference Title

Biochimica et biophysica acta

PubMed ID