UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology



Document Type



Adult; Case-Control Studies; Female; Hepatitis C, Chronic; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Monocytes; RNA, Messenger; Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction; T-Lymphocytes; Toll-Like Receptors; Up-Regulation


Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences


AIM: Hepatitis C virus often establishes chronic infections. Recent studies suggest that viral and bacterial infections are more common in HCV-infected patients compared to controls. Pathogens are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to shape adaptive and innate immune responses.

METHODS: In this study, to assess the ability of HCV-infected host to recognize invading pathogens, we investigated Toll-like receptor expression in innate (monocytes) and adaptive (T cells) immune cells by real-time PCR.

RESULTS: We determined that RNA levels for TLRs 2, 6. 7, 8, 9 and 10 mRNA levels were upregulated in both monocytes and T cells in HCV-infected patients compared to controls. TLR4 was only upregulated in T lymphocytes, while TLR5 was selectively increased in monocytes of HCV-infected patients. MD-2, a TLR4 co-receptor, was increased in patients' monocytes and T cells while CD14 and MyD88 were increased only in monocytes.

CONCLUSION: Our data reveal novel details on TLR expression that likely relates to innate recognition of pathogens and immune defense in HCV-infected individuals.

Rights and Permissions

Citation: World J Gastroenterol. 2006 Feb 28;12(8):1198-204. Link to article on publisher's website

Related Resources

Link to Article in PubMed

Journal Title

World journal of gastroenterology : WJG

PubMed ID




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