A novel endothelin antagonist, A-127722, attenuates ischemic lesion size in rats with temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion: a diffusion and perfusion MRI study
Department of Neurology
Acute Disease; Administration, Oral; Animals; Arterial Occlusive Diseases; Binding, Competitive; Biological Availability; Cerebral Arterial Diseases; Diffusion; Ischemic Attack, Transient; Magnetic Resonance Imaging; Male; Perfusion; Pyrrolidines; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Receptors, Endothelin
Nervous System Diseases | Neurology
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Endothelins (ETs) are potent vasoconstrictors. Plasma ET levels increase during acute brain ischemia and may worsen the ischemic damage. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) are powerful tools for evaluation of acute cerebral ischemia. We studied the effects of A-127722, a novel ET(A)-selective ET antagonist, on cerebral ischemic lesion size using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining postmortem, on acute ischemic lesion development with DWI, and on the cerebral circulation using PI.
METHODS: Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats received either 5 mg/kg of A-127722 or vehicle (n=10 per group) intravenously 30 minutes and subcutaneously 4 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Whole-brain DWI and single-slice PI were done before initiation of treatment and repeated frequently thereafter up to 4 hours after MCAO. The animals were reperfused in the MRI scanner 90 minutes after the onset of MCAO. At 24 hours the animals were killed, and the brains were cut into six 2-mm-thick slices and stained with 2% TTC. Percent hemispheric lesion volume (%HLV) was calculated for each animal.
RESULTS: Physiological parameters, body weight, neurological scores, and premature mortality (2 versus 2) did not differ between the two groups. No hypotension, abnormal behavior, or other adverse effects were seen. TTC-derived %HLV was 25.3+/-5.6% for controls and 16.2+/-9.6% for treated animals (36% reduction, PCONCLUSIONS: A-127722 significantly reduced ischemic lesion size in rats without observable adverse effects. It is not clear whether the effect was due to vasodilatation of collateral arterioles not detectable by PI or whether A-127722 has neuroprotective properties that are independent of vascular effects.
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Citation: Stroke. 1998 Apr;29(4):850-7; discussion 857-8.