The ING gene family in the regulation of cell growth and tumorigenesis
Department of Cell Biology
Medical Subject Headings
Animals; Apoptosis; Cell Movement; *Cell Proliferation; Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly; DNA Repair; Female; Gene Expression Regulation; Genome; Humans; Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; Mice; *Multigene Family; NF-kappa B; Neoplasms; Neovascularization, Physiologic; Protein Structure, Tertiary; Signal Transduction; Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; Tumor Suppressor Proteins
The five members of the inhibitor of growth (ING) gene family have garnered significant interest due to their putative roles as tumor suppressors. However, the precise role(s) of these ING proteins in regulating cell growth and tumorigenesis remains uncertain. Biochemical and molecular biological analysis has revealed that all ING members encode a PHD finger motif proposed to bind methylated histones and phosphoinosital, and all ING proteins have been found as components of large chromatin remodeling complexes that also include histone acetyl transferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, suggesting a role for ING proteins in regulating gene transcription. Additionally, the results of forced overexpression studies performed in tissue culture have indicated that several of the ING proteins can interact with the p53 tumor suppressor protein and/or the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) protein complex. As these ING-associated proteins play well-established roles in numerous cell processes, including DNA repair, cell growth and survival, inflammation, and tumor suppression, several models have been proposed that ING proteins act as key regulators of cell growth not only through their ability to modify gene transcription but also through their ability to alter p53 and NF-kappaB activity. However, these models have yet to be substantiated by in vivo experimentation. This review summarizes what is currently known about the biological functions of the five ING genes based upon in vitro experiments and recent mouse modeling efforts, and will highlight the potential impact of INGs on the development of cancer.
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Citation: J Cell Physiol. 2009 Jan;218(1):45-57. Link to article on publisher's site