Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology; Program in Molecular Medicine
beta-Glucans; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Dendritic Cells; Ovalbumin; Immunity, Cellular; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes
beta-Glucan particles (GPs) are purified Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls treated so that they are primarily beta1,3-d-glucans and free of mannans and proteins. GPs are phagocytosed by dendritic cells (DCs) via the Dectin-1 receptor, and this interaction stimulates proinflammatory cytokine secretion by DCs. As the hollow, porous GP structure allows for high antigen loading, we hypothesized that antigen-loaded GPs could be exploited as a receptor-targeted vaccine delivery system. Ovalbumin (OVA) was electrostatically complexed inside the hollow GP shells (GP-OVA). Incubation of C57BL/6J mouse bone marrow-derived DCs with GP-OVA resulted in phagocytosis, upregulation of maturation markers, and rapid proteolysis of OVA. Compared with free OVA, GP-OVA was >100-fold more potent at stimulating the proliferation of OVA-reactive transgenic CD8(+) OT-I and CD4(+) OT-II T cells, as measured by in vitro [(3)H]thymidine incorporation using DCs as antigen-presenting cells. Next, immune responses in C57BL/6J mice following subcutaneous immunizations with GP-OVA were compared with those in C57BL/6J mice following subcutaneous immunizations with OVA absorbed onto the adjuvant alum (Alum/OVA). Vaccination with GP-OVA stimulated substantially higher antigen-specific CD4(+) T-cell lymphoproliferative and enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) responses than that with Alum/OVA. Moreover, the T-cell responses induced by GP-OVA were Th1 biased (determined by gamma interferon [IFN-gamma] ELISPOT assay) and Th17 biased (determined by interleukin-17a [IL-17a] ELISPOT assay). Finally, both the GP-OVA and Alum/OVA formulations induced strong secretions of IgG1 subclass anti-OVA antibodies, although only GP-OVA induced secretion of Th1-associated IgG2c antibodies. Thus, the GP-based vaccine platform combines adjuvanticity and antigen delivery to induce strong humoral and Th1- and Th17-biased CD4(+) T-cell responses.
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Citation: Huang, H., G. R. Ostroff, C. K. Lee, C. A. Specht, and S. M. Levitz. 2010. Robust stimulation of humoral and cellular immune responses following vaccination with antigen-loaded beta-glucan particles. mBio 1(3):e00164-10. doi:10.1128/mBio.00164-10.
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