Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology
Drosophila; Immunity; Carrier Proteins; Peptidoglycan; Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; Signal Transduction
The Drosophila immune response is characterized by the rapid and robust production of a battery of antimicrobial peptides immediately following infection. The genes encoding these antimicrobial peptides are controlled by two NF-κB signaling pathways that respond to microbial infection. The IMD pathway is triggered by DAP-type peptidoglycan, from the cell wall of most Gram-negative and certain Gram-positive bacteria, and activates the NF-κB precursor protein Relish. The Toll pathway, on the other hand, is stimulated by lysine-type peptidoglycan from many Gram-positive bacteria, β 1,3 glucans from many fungi, as well as by microbial proteases. Toll signaling leads to the activation and nuclear translocation of DIF or Dorsal, two other NF-κB homologs. This review presents our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in microbial recognition and signal transduction in these two innate immune pathways.
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Citation: Silverman N., Paquette N., Aggarwal K. Specificity and signaling in the Drosophila immune response. Invertebrate Survival Journal, 6: 163-174, 2009. Link to article on publisher's website