UMMS Affiliation

Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology



Document Type



Drosophila; Immunity; Carrier Proteins; Peptidoglycan; Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides; Signal Transduction


The Drosophila immune response is characterized by the rapid and robust production of a battery of antimicrobial peptides immediately following infection. The genes encoding these antimicrobial peptides are controlled by two NF-κB signaling pathways that respond to microbial infection. The IMD pathway is triggered by DAP-type peptidoglycan, from the cell wall of most Gram-negative and certain Gram-positive bacteria, and activates the NF-κB precursor protein Relish. The Toll pathway, on the other hand, is stimulated by lysine-type peptidoglycan from many Gram-positive bacteria, β 1,3 glucans from many fungi, as well as by microbial proteases. Toll signaling leads to the activation and nuclear translocation of DIF or Dorsal, two other NF-κB homologs. This review presents our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in microbial recognition and signal transduction in these two innate immune pathways.

Rights and Permissions

Citation: Silverman N., Paquette N., Aggarwal K. Specificity and signaling in the Drosophila immune response. Invertebrate Survival Journal, 6: 163-174, 2009. Link to article on publisher's website



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.