Bacterial effectors: learning on the fly
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology
Animals; Antigens, Bacterial; Bacteria; Bacterial Proteins; Drosophila melanogaster; GTPase-Activating Proteins; Immunity, Innate; Inflammation; Virulence Factors; rho GTP-Binding Proteins
A common defining characteristic of pathogenic bacteria is the expression of a repertoire of effector molecules that have been named virulence factors. These bacterial factors include a -variety of proteins, such as toxins that are internalized by receptors and translocate across endosomal membranes to reach the cytosol, as well as others that are introduced directly into the cell by means of bacterial secretory apparatuses. Given the importance of these effectors for understanding bacterial pathogenicity, significant effort has been made to dissect their molecular mechanisms of action and their respective roles during infection. Herein we will discuss how Drosophila have been used as a model system to study these important microbial effectors, and to understand their contribution to pathogenicity.