Positive and negative regulation of the Drosophila immune response
Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology
Animals; Down-Regulation; Drosophila Proteins; Drosophila melanogaster; Gene Expression Regulation; Immune System; Immunity, Natural; Models, Biological; Organ Specificity; Peptidoglycan; Signal Transduction; Toll-Like Receptors; Transcription, Genetic
Insects mount a robust innate immune response against a wide array of microbial pathogens. The hallmark of the Drosophila humoral immune response is the rapid production of antimicrobial peptides in the fat body and their release into the circulation. Two recognition and signaling cascades regulate expression of these antimicrobial peptide genes. The Toll pathway is activated by fungal and many Gram-positive bacterial infections, whereas the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway responds to Gram-negative bacteria. Recent work has shown that the intensity and duration of the Drosophila immune response is tightly regulated. As in mammals, hyperactivated immune responses are detrimental, and the proper down-modulation of immunity is critical for protective immunity and health. In order to keep the immune response properly modulated, the Toll and IMD pathways are controlled at multiple levels by a series of negative regulators. In this review, we focus on recent advances identifying and characterizing the negative regulators of these pathways.
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Citation: BMB Rep. 2008 Apr 30;41(4):267-77.