Targeting of the YY1 transcription factor to the nucleolus and the nuclear matrix in situ: the C-terminus is a principal determinant for nuclear trafficking
Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences; Department of Cell Biology
Medical Subject Headings
Animals; Cell Compartmentation; Cell Line; Cell Nucleolus; DNA-Binding Proteins; Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors; Fluorescent Antibody Technique; Hela Cells; Humans; Mice; Nuclear Matrix; Oligonucleotides; Plasmids; Sequence Deletion; Structure-Activity Relationship; Trans-Activation (Genetics); Transcription Factors; *Transcription, Genetic; Transfection; YY1 Transcription Factor
Life Sciences | Medicine and Health Sciences
The multifunctional transcription factor YY1 is associated with the nuclear matrix. In osteoblasts, the interaction of several nuclear matrix-associated transcription factors with the bone specific osteocalcin gene contributes to tissue-specific and steroid hormone-mediated transcription. A canonical nuclear matrix targeting signal (NMTS) is present in all members of the AML/CBFbeta transcription factor family, but not in other transcription factors. Therefore, we defined sequences that direct YY1 (414 amino acids) to the nuclear matrix. A series of epitope tagged deletion constructs were expressed in HeLa S3 and in human Saos-2 osteosarcoma cells. Subcellular distribution was determined in whole cells and nuclear matrices in situ by immunofluorescence. We demonstrated that amino acids 257-341 in the C-terminal domain of YY1 are necessary for nuclear matrix association. We also observed that sequences within the N-terminal domain of YY1 permit weak nuclear matrix binding. Our data further suggest that the Gal4 epitope tag contains sequences that affect subcellular localization, but not targeting to the nuclear matrix. The targeted association of YY1 with the nuclear matrix provides an additional level of functional regulation for this transcription factor that can exhibit positive and negative control.
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Citation: J Cell Biochem. 1998 Mar 15;68(4):500-10.