The pancreatic beta-cell transcriptome and integrated-omics
MS in Clinical Investigation
Diabetes Center of Excellence; Department of Medicine
Medical Subject Headings
Animals; Diabetes Mellitus; Female; Gene Expression Profiling; Gene Expression Regulation; Gene Regulatory Networks; Genome-Wide Association Study; Glucose; Humans; Insulin; Insulin-Secreting Cells; Male; Mice; Organ Specificity; Sequence Analysis, RNA; Transcriptome
Endocrine System Diseases | Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism | Genetics and Genomics
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: beta Cells represent one of many cell types in heterogeneous pancreatic islets and play the central role in maintaining glucose homeostasis, such that disrupting beta-cell function leads to diabetes. This review summarizes the methods for isolating and characterizing beta cells, and describes integrated 'omics' approaches used to define the beta cell by its transcriptome and proteome.
RECENT FINDINGS: RNA sequencing and mass spectrometry-based protein identification have now identified RNA and protein profiles for mouse and human pancreatic islets and beta cells, and for beta-cell lines. Recent publications have outlined these profiles and, more importantly, have begun to assign the presence or absence of specific genes and regulatory molecules to beta-cell function and dysfunction. Overall, researchers have focused on understanding the pathophysiology of diabetes by connecting genome, transcriptome, proteome, and regulatory RNA profiles with findings from genome-wide association studies.
SUMMARY: Studies employing these relatively new techniques promise to identify specific genes or regulatory RNAs with altered expression as beta-cell function begins to deteriorate in the spiral toward the development of diabetes. The ultimate goal is to identify the potential therapeutic targets to prevent beta-cell dysfunction and thereby better treat the individual with diabetes.
VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COE/A5.
Rights and Permissions
Citation: Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2014 Apr;21(2):83-8. doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000051. Link to article on publisher's site
DOI of Published Version
Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
Blodgett, David M.; Cura, Anthony J.; and Harlan, David, "The pancreatic beta-cell transcriptome and integrated-omics" (2014). GSBS Student Publications. 1947.